Childhood lead poisoning
Back on 1998 a study was organized by Dr Ted Rozema for the purpose of examining the effects s specific chelation suppositories (Detoxamin). Friends of Lead Free Children, a non-profit organization connected to Columbia University and Fordham University, assisted in determinization of the childhood lead poisoning study area. A residential neighborhood in Haina, Dominican Republic as selected. The residential neighborhood was located adjacent to a battery recycling plant. All preliminary testing indicated 100% of residents as markedly toxic with lead.
Summary: The test results clearly demonstrate the high level of effectiveness of removing lead from the human body with this specific chelation suppositories. The effect of childhood lead poisoning on high percentages of the pediatric population is cause for concern. Lead poisoning is one of the most common and preventable pediatric health problems today. Currently, the primary form of medical intervention consists of expensive and painful CaEDTA intramuscular injection. The availability of an easily administered effective medical treatment is an important component in controlling the worldwide lead poisoning epidemic.
Introduction: Childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the world today, and it is entirely preventable and reversible. Enough is now known about the sources and pathways of lead exposure, about ways of preventing this exposure, and about ways of reducing the lead content of the body to begin the efforts to eradicate this disease permanently. The persistence of lead poisoning, in light of all that is known, presents a singular and direct challenge to public health authorities, clinicians, regulatory agencies, and society.
Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment as a result of industrialization. It has no known physiologic value. Children are particularly susceptible to lead’s toxic effects. Lead poisoning, for the most part, is silent: most poisoned children have no symptoms. The vast majority of cases, therefore, go undiagnosed and untreated. Lead poisoning is widespread. It is not solely a problem of inner city or minority children. No socioeconomic group, geographic area, or racial or ethnic population is spared.
Previous lead statements issued by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) have acknowledged the adverse effects of lead at lower and lower levels. In the most recent previous CDC lead statement, published in 1985, the threshold for action was set at a blood lead level of 25 mcg/dL, although it was acknowledged that adverse effects occur below that level. In the past several years, however, the scientific evidence showing that some adverse effects occur below levels at least as low as 10 mcg/dL in children has become so overwhelming and compelling that it must be a major force in determining how we approach childhood lead exposure.
It is not possible to select a single number to define lead poisoning. Epidemiological studies have identified harmful effects of lead in children at blood lead levels at least as low as 10 mcg/dL. Some studies have suggested harmful effects at even lower levels, but the body of information accumulated so far is not adequate for effects below about 10 mcg/dL to be evaluated definitively. As yet, no threshold has been identified for the harmful effects of lead.
Because 10 mcg/dL is the lower level of range at which effects are now identified, primary prevention activities are typically directed at reducing children’s blood lead levels below 10 mcg/dL or 14 mcg/dL. While the overall goal should be to reduce children’s blood lead levels below 10 mcg/dL, there are entrenched reasons for not attempting to do interventions directed at individual children to lower blood lead levels of 10-14 mcg/dL. First, practical medical interventions for children with blood lead levels in this range have previously been unavailable.
Second, the sheer numbers of children in this range would preclude effective case management in established intravenous therapy. Clearly, a simply and effective therapy such as suppository is needed.
The single, all-purpose definition of childhood lead poisoning has been replaced with a multi-tiered approach, described in the following table:
|Class||Blood lead concentrations (mcg/dL)||Comments|
|I||<10||A child in Class I is not considered to be lead poisoned.|
|IIA||10-14||Many children (or a large proportion of children) with blood lead levels in this range should trigger community wide childhood lead poisoning prevention activities. Children in this range may need to be rescreened more frequently. A decrease in blood lead level
would be beneficial.
|IIB||15-19||Child should receive nutritional and educational interventions and more frequent screening. If the blood lead level persists in
this range, environmental investigation and intervention should be done. Non-invasive medical intervention should be done.
|III||20-44||Environmental evaluation, remediation and a medical examination should take place. Such a child needs pharmacological treatment of lead poisoning.|
|IV||45-69||A child in Class IV will need both medical and environmental interventions, including even I.M. chelation therapy.|
|V||69>||A child with Class V lead poisoning is a medical emergency. Medical and environmental management must begin immediately.|
Background: Lead is a poison that affects virtually every system in the body. The risks of lead exposure are not based on theoretical calculations. They are well known from studies of children themselves and are not extrapolated from data on laboratory animals or high-dose occupational exposure.
Since 1970, our understanding of childhood lead poisoning has changed substantially. As investigators have used more sensitive measures and better study designs, the generally recognized level for lead toxicity has progressively shifted downward. Before the mid-1960’s, a level above 60 mcg/dL was considered toxic (Chisholm and Harrison, 1956). By 1978, the defined level of toxicity had declined 50% to 30 mcg/dL.
Lower blood lead levels cause adverse effects on the central nervous system, kidney and hematopoietic system. Blood lead levels as low as 10 mcg/dL, which do not cause distinctive symptoms, are associated with decreased intelligence and impaired neurobehavioral development (Davis and Svendsgaard, 1987; Mushak et al, 1989).
The concern about adverse effects on central nervous system functioning at blood lead levels as low as 10 mcg/dL is based on a large number of rigorous epidemiological and experimental studies. Several well-designed and carefully conducted cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies in many different countries have been conducted (Lansdown et al., 1986; Fulton et al., 1987; Fergusson et al., 1988; Silva et al., 1988; Bergomi et al., 1989; Hansen et al., 1989; Hatzakis et al., 1989; Winneke et al., 1990; Lyngbye et al., 1990; Needleman et al., 1990; Yule et al., 1981; Hawk et al., 1986; Schroeder et al., 1985) Some inconsistencies can be found in the results of these studies, but the weight of the evidence clearly supports the hypothesis that decrements in children’s cognition are evident at blood lead levels well below 25 mcg/dL. No threshold for the lead-IQ relationship is discernable from these data. Recent evaluation of 24 major cross-sectional studies provides strong support for the hypothesis that children’s IQ scores are inversely related to lead burden (Needleman and Gatsonis, 1990).
Results: Average 20 children test data:
Also of special interest is the rebound effect in the blood lead levels. It’s degree reflecting the high amount of stored lead in the tissue and bones and the attendant mobilization effect. Each time the blood lead level was diminished, additional lead was mobilized from the tissues and bones. It was anticipated that methods to reduced lead intake would be in place during and after this study.
Unfortunately, no environmental mitigation was ever enacted. Ideally, environmental intervention would have been enforced.
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